AP World History Key Terms
   
   
1 1. prehistory vs. history Prehistory – no written documents; History: written proof of history
2 2. features of civilization Social etiquette, religion, education, literature
3 3. stages of hominid development Austrolopithecus, homo habilis, homo erectus, homo sapiens
4 4. “Out of Africa” thesis vs. multiregional thesis Humans originated from Africa and proliferated vs. originated from Africa but multiple geographical locations first 100 million years
5 5. Paleolithic Era Old Stone Age
6 6. Neolithic Era New Stone Age
7 7. family units, clans, tribes A group of people sharing common ancestry
8 8. foraging societies Nomadic, small communities and population, no political system, economic distribution is more equal
9 9. nomadic hunters/gatherers Move place to place according to environment; adapts to environment
10 10.  Ice Age Period of time where Earth was covered partly in ice
11 11. civilization Changes when agriculture started
12 12. Neolithic Revolution Farming uses; start of agriculture
13 13. Domestication of plants and animals Farming system where animals are taken to different locations in order to find fresh pastures
14 14. nomadic pastoralism Slash-and-burn; once land is depleted, moved on to let soil recover
15 15. migratory farmers Farmers that migrate instead of settling after using up the land. 
16 16. partrilineal/patrilocal Live with husband’s family. Traced through father’s lineage
17 17. irrigation systems replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops
18 18. metalworking craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures. It requires skill and the use of many different types of tools
19 19. ethnocentrism to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one's own culture
20 20. foraging Looking for food
21 21. sedentary agriculture Domestication of plants and animals
22 22. shifting cultivation process by which people take an area of land to use for agriculture, only to abandon it a short time later
23 23. slash-and-burn agriculture Trees cut down, plots made for agriculture
24 24. matrilineal System in which one belongs to mother’s lineage
25 25. cultural diffusion spread of ideas and material culture, especially if these occur independently of population movement
26 26. independent invention Creative innovations of new solutions to old and new problems
27 27. specialization of labor specialisation of co-operative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase efficiency of output.
28 28. gender division of labor Labor divided between man and woman, hunting and gathering etc.
29 29. metallurgy and metalworking the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements and their mixtures, which are called alloys. craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures
30 30. Fertile Crescent a region in the Middle East incorporating present-day Israel, West Bank, and Lebanon and parts of Jordan, Syria, Iraq and south-eastern Turkey.
31 31. Gilgamesh Gilgamesh became a legendary protagonist in the Epic of Gilgamesh.
32 32. Hammurabi’s Law Code First set of defined laws within a civilization.
33 33. Egypt the civilization of the Lower Nile Valley, between the First Cataract and the mouths of the Nile Delta, from circa 3300 BC until the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation, it is the quintessential example of a hydraulic empire.
34 34. Egyptian Book of the Dead common name for the ancient Egyptian funerary texts. Constituted a collection of spells, charms, passwords, numbers and magical formulas for use by the deceased in the afterlife, describing many of the basic tenets of Egyptian mythology. They were intended to guide the dead through the various trials that they would encounter before reaching the underworld. Knowledge of the appropriate spells was considered essential to achieving happiness after death.
35 35. pyramids tombs for egyptian kings.
36 36. hieroglyphics system of writing used by the Ancient Egyptians, using a combination of logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic elements.
37 37. Indus valley civilization an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra river in what is now Pakistan and western India. The Indus Valley Civilization is also sometimes referred to as the Harappan Civilization of the Indus Valley, in reference to its first excavated city of Harappa
38 38. early China Xia, Shang, Zhou, Warring States Period, Qin, Han
39 39. the Celts group of peoples that occupied lands stretching from the British Isles to Gallatia. Went to war with Romans.
40 40. the Hittites and iron weapons First to work iron, first to enter Iron Age. controlled central Anatolia, north-western Syria down to Ugarit, and Mesopotamia down to Babylon, lasted from roughly 1680 BC to about 1180 BC. After 1180 BC, the Hittite polity disintegrated into several independent city-states, some of which survived as late as around 700 BC.
41 41. the Assyrians and cavalry warfare indigenous people of Mesopotamia and have a history spanning over 6700 years. Started cavalry warfare?
42 42. The Persian Empire used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). the Achaemenid Empire that emerged under Cyrus the Great that is usually the earliest to be called "Persian." Successive states in Iran before 1935 are collectively called the Persian Empire by Western historians
43 43. The Hebrews and monotheism descendants of biblical Patriarch Eber; were people who lived in the Levant, which was politically Canaan when they first arrived in the area. First monotheistic group; Yahweh.
44 44. the Phoenicians and the alphabet enterprising maritime trading culture that spread right across the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC. First form of language.
45 45. the Lydians and coinage ancient kingdom of Asia Minor, first to mint coins.
46 46. Greek city-states region controlled exclusively by Greek, and usually having sovereignty. Ex. Crete
47 47. democracy form of government in which policy is decided by the preference of the majority in a decision-making process, usually elections or referendums, open to all or most citizens.
48 48. Persian Wars a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC.
49 49. Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League which included Sparta and Corinth.
50 50. Alexander the Great United Ancient Greece; Hellenistic Age, conquered a large empire.
51 51. Hellenism shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of various ethnicities, and from the political dominance of the city-state to that of larger monarchies. In this period the traditional Greek culture was changed by strong Eastern influences, especially Persian, in aspects of religion and government. Cultural centers shifted away from mainland Greece, to Pergamon, Rhodes, Antioch and Alexandria.
52 52. Homer legendary early Greek poet and rhapsode traditionally credited with authorship of the major Greek epics Iliad and Odyssey
53 53. Socrates and Plato Greek philosopher/student.
54 54. Aristotle Along with Plato, he is often considered to be one of the two most influential philosophers in Western thought. He wrote many books about physics, poetry, zoology, logic, government, and biology.
55 55. Western scientific thought Systematic apporach of observation, hypothesis formation, hypothesis testing and hypothesis evaluation that forms the basis for modern science.
56 56. Roman Republic republican government of the city of Rome and its territories from 510 BC until the establishment of the Roman Empire, which sometimes placed at 44 BC the year of Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator or, more commonly, 27 BC the year that the Roman Senate granted Octavian the title "Augustus".
57 57. plebians vs. patricians peasants/slaves vs. elite/upperclass
58 58. Punic Wars series of three wars fought between Rome and the Phoenician city of Carthage. Reason: clash of interests between the expanding Carthaginian and Roman spheres of influence.
59 59. Julius Caesar Roman military and political leader. He was instrumental in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Dictator for life.
60 60. Roman Empire Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian.
61 61. Qin, Han, Tang Dynasties First three dynasties of China that we have recordings of. First of 'centralized' China.
62 62. Shi Huangdi king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BC to 221 BC, and then the first emperor of a unified China from 221 BC to 210 BC, ruling under the name First Emperor.
63 63. Chinese tributary system form of conducting diplomatic and political relations with China before the fall of the Qin Dynasty.
64 64. the Silk Road interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel.
65 65. Nara and Heian Japan ast division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The Heian period is considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. Nara: agricultural in nature, centered around villages. Most of the villagers followed the Shinto religion, based around the worship of natural and ancestral spirits.
66 66. the Fujiwara clan dominated the Japanese politics of Heian period.
67 67. Lady Murasaki and “The Tale of Genji Written by Murasaki. First novel of japanese/world literature.
68 68. Central Asia and Mongolia historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road. As a result, it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, the Middle East, South Asia, and East Asia
69 69. the Aryan invasion of India Aryans invaded and destroyed Indus River civilization, settled, moved to Ganges River.
70 70. Dravidians people of southern and central India and northern Sri Lanka who speak Dravidian languages, the best known of which are Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam.
71 71. Indian caste system system was a basically simple division of society into four castes (Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra) arranged in a hierarchy, with the "Untouchable" (Dalit) outcasts below this structure. But socially the caste system was more complicated, with many more castes and sub-castes and other divisions.
72 72. Ashoka of the Mauryan empire from 273 BC to 232 BC. A convert to Buddhism.
73 73. Constantinople/Byzantine Empire Made into second capital by Constantine in attempts to help Rome turn its economy around.
74 74. Justinian r. 527 - 565 CE – Justinian is the Eastern Roman emperor who tried to restore the unity of the old Roman Empire. He issued the most famous compilation of Roman Law. He was unable to maintain a hold in Italy and lost the provinces of north Africa. It was the last effort to restore the Mediterranean unity.
75 75. early Medieval Europe “Dark Ages” a period in history between the last emperor of Rome, 475 A.D., and the Renaissance, about 1450 (15th century). Art production during this period was dominated by the Catholic Church.
76 76. feudalism The social organization created by exchanging grants of lands r fiefs in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou dynasty and European Middle Ages; greater lords provided protection and aid to lesser lords in return for military service.
77 77. Charlemagne Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany (800 C.E). He helped restore some church-based education in western Europe, and the level of intellectual activity began a slow recovering. After death, the empire could not survive.
78 78. Mohammed and the foundation of Islam In 610/earlier, he received the first of many revelations: Allah transmitted to him through the angel Gabriel. Believed in the five pillars: (1) “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet.” (2) Pray facing the Mecca five times a day. (3) Fast during the month of Ramadan which enhances community solidarity and allowed the faithful to demonstrate their fervor. (4) The zakat, tithe for charity, strengthened community cohesion. (5) The haji, pilgrimage to the holy city Mecca, to worship Allah at the Ka’ba.
79 79. Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates Umayyad: Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan later able to establish dynasty as rulers of Islam.  Abbasid: Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam (750 C.E.) A caliph is a political and religious successor to Muhammad.
80 80. Bantu and their migrations To the 10th century, the wave reached the east African interior. Bantu-speaking herders in the north and farmers in the south mixed with older populations in the region. Others were moving to the African coast. Thus creating coastal trading ports.
81 81. Nubia The Coptic (Christians of Egypt) influence spread up the Nile into Nubia (the ancient land of Kush). Muslims attempted to penetrate Nubia and met stiff resistance in the 9th century (left Christian descendants of ancient Kush – left as independent Christian kingdom until 13th century).
82 82. Ghana Formed by 8th century by exchanging gold from the forests of west Africa for salt/dates from the Sahara or for goods from Mediterranean north Africa. Camels, were introduced tcreating better trade. By 3rd century C.E. it rose to power by taxing the salt and gold exchanged within its borders. 10th century, rulers had converted to Islam and were at its height of power. Almoravid armies invaded Ghana from north Africa (1076), the power was declining despite the kingdom’s survival. 13th century, new states rose.
83 83. Olmec Cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico (1200 BCE); featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems.
84 84. Maya Classic culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central American contemporary with Teotihuacán; extended over broad religion; featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical and mathematical systems, highly developed religion.
85 85. Andean societies developed in the second millennium BCE in the central Andes and the central Pacific coast of South America. While oldest artifacts carbon date around 9750 BCE, evidence of a significant economic surplus begins around 2000 BCE. The Andean civilizations included the urbanized cultures of Chav�n, Moche, Ica-Nazca, Chimu, Tiwanaku, Aymara, Chachapoya, and other Pre-Inca cultures. The semi-urbanized Inca conquered greater Peru in the 15th century. Then, in the 16th century, the European fiefdom of Spain conquered Peru.
86 86. Mississippian culture The Mississippian culture was a Mound-building Native American culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States in the centuries leading up to European contact. The Mississippian way of life began to develop around 900 A.D. in the Mississippi River Valley (for which it is named). Cultures in the Tennessee River Valley may have also begun to develop Mississippian characteristics at this point. The Mississippian (archaeological) Stage is usually considered to come to a close with the arrival of European contact, although the Mississippian way of life continued among their descendants. There are many regional variants of the Mississippian way of life, which are treated together in this article.
87 87. Anasazi Ancestral Puebloans were a prehistoric Native American civilization centered around the present-day Four Corners area of the Southwest United States.
88 88. cultural diffusion versus independent innovation spread through cultures vs. independent inventing
89 89. aristocracy system of government with "rule by the best"
90 90. parliamentary bodies Senate and ……[peasant voting body]
91 91. oligarchy Political regime where most political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence).
92 92. republics/democracies Republic -  state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. Democracy - form of government in which policy is decided by the preference of the majority in a decision-making process, usually elections or referendums, open to all or most citizens.
93 93. theocracy form of government in which a religion or faith plays a dominant role.
94 94. slavery vs. serfdom were not property themselves and could not be sold apart from the land which they worked. Serfdom is the forced labour of serfs, on the fields of the privileged land owners, in return for protection and the right to work on their leased fields.
95 95. war state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of violent, physical force between combatants or upon civilians.
96 96. trade routes sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo.
97 97. Polynesian migrations most likely began from the islands of Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, spreading east, south, and north, covering millions of square miles of ocean sparsely dotted with islands.Polynesians migrated throughout the Pacific in sailing canoes, ultimately forming a triangle, whose points are Aotearoa (New Zealand) to the southwest, Rapa Nui (Easter Island) to the east, and the Hawaiian Archipelago to the north.
98 98. Eurasia’s great age of migrations Increase in migrations from Eurasia.
99 99. polytheism belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities.
100 100. Zoroastrianism one of the world's oldest monotheistic religions. Worship of Wisdom
101 101. the Ten Commandments list of religious and moral imperatives which, according to the Bible, was spoken by the god YHWH to Moses on Mount Sinai and engraved on two stone tablets.
102 102. the Torah refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written and Oral Law.
103 103. the Talmud of a series of disputations that took place in Europe during the Middle Ages, a group of rabbis were called upon to defend the Talmud. The attacks against Judaism was based on a long held idea that rabbis had "distorted" the Bible through their interpretations, keeping Jews from "adopting" Christianity.
104 104. YHWH "Yahweh", God's name.
105 105. Abraham the first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the father of Isaac; according to Genesis, God promised to give Abraham's family (the Hebrews) the land of Canaan (the Promised Land); God tested Abraham by asking him to sacrifice his son; "Judaism, Christianity, and Islam each has a special claim on Abraham"
106 106. Moses and the Exodus from Egypt – Passover Passover to celebrate the day the Jews were led out of Egypt and into their land by Moses.
107 107. David and Solomon David - Greatest king of jews. Solomon - wisest king on earth; fell to evilness, turned away from his God.
108 108. Jewish Diaspora to the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout the world. The notion of diaspora is commonly accepted to have begun with the Babylonian Captivity in 597 BCE.
109 109. Vedism (Rig-Veda) of hymns counted among the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas, and contains the oldest texts preserved in any Indo-Iranian language.
110 110. Hinduism (Upanishads, Mahabharata, Bhagavad-Gita) encompasses many religious traditions that widely vary by culture, as well as many diverse beliefs and sects. The estimates of Hinduism's origin vary from 3102 BCE to 1300 BCE, and it is generally regarded as the world's oldest major religion.
111 111. samsara, karma, dharma Samsara - transmigration of soul from one body to another, Karma - the law behind reincarnation, Dharma - cosmic ethnics
112 112. Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva The Creator, The Preserver, The Destroyer.
113 113. Laws of Manu work of Hindu law and ancient Indian society, written c.200 in India. It is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or "laws of righteous conduct");
114 114. Buddhism religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama. Originating in India, Buddhism gradually spread throughout Asia to Central Asia, Sri Lanka, Tibet, Southeast Asia, as well as the East Asian countries of China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, Vietnam and Thailand.
115 115. Four Noble Truths fundamental insight or enlightenment of Sakyamuni Buddha (the historical Buddha), which led to the formulation of the Buddhist philosophy.
116 116. Eightfold Path way to the cessation of suffering, the fourth part of the Four Noble Truths.
117 117. Siddhartha Gautama Buddha; founder of Buddhism.
118 118. nirvana not a place nor a state, it is an absolute truth to be realized, and a person can do so without dying.
119 119. Theravada (Hinayana) and Mahayana Buddhism T - Buddha is Teacher; M - Buddha is God.
120 120.  Daoism set of philosophical teachings and religious practices rooted in a specific metaphysical understanding of the Chinese character Tao. For taoists, Tao could be described as the continuity principle behind the whole process of the constantly changing Universe.
121 121. Tao-te Chng and the I Ching The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see chapter below on translating the title) is an ancient Chinese scripture. The work is traditionally said to have been written around 600 BCE by the famous sage called Laozi. oldest of the Chinese classic texts. It describes an ancient system of cosmology and philosophy which is at the heart of Chinese cultural beliefs.
122 122. Laozi Founder/teacher of taoism.
123 123. Confucianism an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius.
124 124. Analects record of speeches by Confucius and his disciples, as well as the discussions they held.
125 125. K’ung Fu-tzu (Confucius) Teacher/founder of Confucianism.
126 126. Mandate of Heaven blessing of Heaven and that if a king ruled unwisely, Heaven would be displeased and would give the Mandate to someone else.
127 127. Judeo-Christian tradition body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Christianity and Judaism, and typically considered a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values.
128 128. Jesus of Nazareth Son of God.
129 129. the Bible (Old and New Testament) Holy text of Christianity.
130 130. Crucifixion and Resurrection (Easter) Died on Good Friday, resurrected on Easter Sunday.
131 131. Peter and Paul Main disciples of Jesus; carried on teaching after death.
132 132. Constantine and the Edict of Milan Outlawed/killed people practising christianity.
133 133.  Saint Augustine saint and the pre-eminent Doctor of the Church according to Roman Catholicism, and is considered by Evangelical Protestants to be (together with the Apostle Paul) the theological fountainhead of the Reformation teaching on salvation and grace
134 134. Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism (Great Schism of 1054) reflecting its claim to be the preserver of the original Christian traditions as well as those established by the church during the first 1000 years of its existence; maintain a belief that their episcopate can be traced directly back to the Apostles
135 135. Islam (the Qur’ran) "the submission to God" is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the world's second largest religion.
136 136. Allah God's name in Islam.
137 137. Mohammed Last prophet of God.
138 138. Mecca The city is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go
139 139. the Kaaba building located inside the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah). The mosque has been built around the Kaaba. The Kaaba is the holiest place in Islam.
140 140. Medina (the Hegira) Medina is the second holiest city of Islam, after Mecca. Its importance as a religious site derives from the presence there of the Shrine of the Prophet Mohammad by Masjid al-Nabawi or the Mosque of the Prophet
141 141. Sunni versus Shiite Sunnis believe this process was conducted in a fair and proper manner and accept Abu Bakr as a righteous and rightful Caliph. The second major sect, the Shia, believe that the Prophet had appointed his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor years earlier during an announcement at Ghadir Khom.
142 142.  Sufism school of esoteric philosophy in Islam, which is based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as a definite goal to attain. In modern language it might also be referred to as Islamic spirituality or Islamic mysticism.
143 1. Abbasid   (750 C.E.) The Sunni dynasty that overthrew the Umayyads as caliphs
144 2. Abu Bakr  (632-634 C.E.) The first caliph; one of Muhammad's earliest followers and closest friends
145 3. Ali  The 4th caliph; the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad who was meant to be the original successor of Muhammad but was too young. Caused warfare between the Sunnis and Shi'a for not punnishing the murderer of the 3rd caliph, Uthman
146 4. Axum   Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; defeated kingdom of Kush around 300 B.C.E. and succeeded by Ethiopia. Received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity
147 5. Baghdad  Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphone
148 6. Battle of Tours   (October 25, 732) Charles Martel, the Frankish Leader went against an Islamic army led by Emir Abd er Rahman; the Islamic army was defeated and Emir Abd er Rahman was killed. The battle stopped the northward advancement from Spain
149 7. Benin  A powerful city-state formed around the 14th century; was not relatively influence by the Europeans despite coming into contact with the Portuguese'; important commercial and political entity until the 19th century
150 8. Bourbons  (18th century) A dynasty in Spain which launced a seiries of reforms aimed at strengthening the state and its economy; influenced Charless III
151 9. Burghers  Dutch equivalence of bourgeoisie; the middle class
152 10. Byzantine Empire   Eastern Half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; capital at Constantinople
153 11. Caliphate  Political and religious successors to Muhammad
154 12. Carolingian Dynasty  (8-10th century) Royal house of franks that succeeded the Merovingian dynasty; most prominent member was Charlemagne
155 13. Caste  Social status or position conferred by a system based on class in India
156 14. Charlemagne  Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany
157 15. Charles Martel  Charles the "Hammer"; led the the Battle of Tours and saved Europe from the Islamic expansion. (732 C.E.)
158 16. Chichen Itza  Originally a Mayan city; conquered by the Toltecs (1000 C.E)
159 17. Code of Bushido  (Formulated 14th century) Way of the Warrior for Japanese samurais; defined service and conduct appropriate to their status
160 18. Code of chivalry  Social codes of knighthood that originated in France in the Middle Ages; associated with ideals of knightly virtues, honour and of courtly love; came to known as 'gentlemanly conduct.'
161 19. Crusades  series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims (temporarily succeeded in capturing Jersalem and establishing Christian kingdoms)
162 20. Czar  male monarch/emperor of Russia
163 21. Daimyo warlord rulers of 300 small kingdoms following Onin War and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate
164 22. Dome of the Rock  Islamic shrine in Jerusalem; believed to be the site where Muhammed ascended to Heaven
165 23. Dynasty a family/group that maintains power for several generations
166 24. Eleanor of Aquitaine   Queen of France as the wife of Louis VII; married Henry II that marriage was annulled and became Queen of England during 1152-1204
167 25. Emperor Xuanzong   (reigned 713-755) Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty; encouraged overexpansion
168 26. Ferdinand   marriage to Isabella created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World
169 27. Feudalism  system where lords provided protection/aid to serfs in return for labor
170 28. Five Pillars of Islam  obligatory religious duties of all Muslims: confession of faith, prayer (5 times a day facing Mecca), fasting during Ramadan, zakat (tax for charity), and the hajj (pilgrimage)
171 29. Franks  a group of Germanic tribes in the early Christian era; spread from the Rhine into the Roman Empire
172 30. Genghis Khan   (1170s – 1227) from 1206 khagan of all Mongol tribes; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China and territories as far west as the Abbasid regions
173 31. Golden Horde  one of four subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after Genghis Khan’s death; territory covered much of present south-central Russia
174 32. Hagia Sophia   large church constructed in Constantinople during the reign of Justinian
175 33. Hanseatic League   organization of cities in N. Germany/Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance
176 34. Heresies  any opinions/doctrines at variance with the established or orthodox position; beliefs that reject the orthodox tenets of a religion
177 35. Holy Roman Empire   a continuation of the Roman Empire in central-western Europe (at least, loosely organized/modeled on it)
178 36. Hordes nomadic Mongol tribes
179 37. Hundred Years’ War   (1337 – 1453) conflict between England and France –fought over lands England possessed in France (issue of feudal rights vs. emerging claims of national states)
180 38. Incan  Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire incorporating various Andean cultures. Term also used for leader of empire
181 39. Inquisition   An investigation; A tribunal formerly held in the Roman Catholic Church and directed at the suppression of heresy
182 40. Interregnum  The interval of time between the end of a sovereign's reign and the accession of a successor
183 41. Islam   Major world religion originating in 610 CE in the Arabian peninsula; literally meaning submission; based o prophecy of Muhammad
184 42. Ivan the Terrible  Ivan IV, confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars(aristocrats); continued policy of Russian expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture
185 43. Joan of Arc   A French military leader of the fifteenth century, a national heroine who at the age of seventeen took up arms to establish the rightful king on the French throne. She claimed to have heard God speak to her in voices. These claims eventually led to her trial for heresy and her execution by burning at the stake. Joan of Arc is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church
186 44. Justinian  Eastern Roman emperor 527-565 CE; tried to restore unity of old Roman Empire; issued most famous compilation of Roman law
187 45. Justinian Code  Compilation of Roman law
188 46. King Clovis  Early Frankish king; converted Franks to Christianity C. 496; allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom
189 47. King Hugh Capet  king of France (987–96), first of the Capetians; son of Hugh the Great; he gave away much of his land to secure the dynasty. He spent much of his reign fighting Charles and later became involved in a controversy with the papacy—unsettled at his death—over deposition of the Carolingian archbishop of Reims
190 48. Kublai Khan  Grandson of Chinggis Khan; commander of Mongol forces responsible for conquest of China; became khagan in 1260; established sinicized Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271
191 49. Kush  An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile C 100 BCE; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries
192 50. Machu Picchu  An ancient Inca fortress city in the Andes northwest of Cuzco, Peru
193 51. Magna Carta   Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchial claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy
194 52. Magyars  A Hungarian ethnic group
195 53. Mali  Country of western Africa; During the Middle Ages, Mali formed a huge territorial empire, noted as a center of Islamic study and as a trade route for gold. Its center was Timbuktu
196 54. Manors  The district over which a lord had domain and could exercise certain rights and privileges in medieval western Europe
197 55. Mansa Musa  African King who made pilgrimage to Mecca, and gave out so much gold, that worth of gold dropped rapidly
198 56. Marco Polo  A Venetian trader that went and learned about China under Kublai Khan
199 57. Mayan  People occupying the Eastern third of Mesoamerica, particularly the Yucatan Peninsula
200 58. Mecca  Religious Center of Islam, where Muslims pray towards, controlled by Umayyad
201 59. Medina   Great trading center where Muhammad fed to and solved their civil war
202 60. Mesoamerica   Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica that gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the European discovery of the New World by Columbus
203 61. Middle Ages  The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three 'ages': the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times
204 62. Ming   Succeeded Mongol Yuan in 1360 lasted till 1644, characterized by great trade expeditions that were withdrawn
205 63. Mohammed  The prophet of Islam: born in 570 in clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca
206 64. Mongol  Central asian nomadic people; spread all over asia and Europe spreading their empire while pillaging
207 65. Muslims People who believe and follow the Islamic religion
208 66. Oral literature   Oral literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word
209 67. Orthodox Christianity Orthodox Christianity is a generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions which descend from the Roman Catholic Church
210 68. Otto the Great  King of the Germans and arguably the first Holy Roman Emperor
211 69. Peasant  Agricultural worker that works land they own or rented
212 70. Pepin  Mayor of the Palace of the whole Frankish kingdom (both Austrasia and Neustria), and later King of the Franks; born 714; died at St. Denis, 24 September, 768. He was the son of Charles Martel
213 71. Pope  Pope in Rome had top authority, while regional churches had bishops
214 72. Pope Innocent III  Supported Otto, believing Otto will give church back power but Otto betrayed and seized church’s land and distributed among vassals
215 73. Primogeniture an exclusive right of inheritance belonging to the eldest son
216 74. Prince Shotoku  Important Japanese regent and scholar of the Asuka period… promoted Buddhism and Confucianism, reinstituted embassies to China, and adopted the Chinese calendar and court ranks
217 75. Queen Isabella  queen of Castile (1474–1504) and of Aragon (1479–1504), ruling the two kingdoms jointly from 1479 with her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon (Ferdinand V of Castile). Their rule effected the permanent union of Spain and the beginning of an overseas empire in the New World, led by Christopher Columbus
218 76. quipu  system of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system…could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records
219 77. Qur’an  the holy book of Islam… recitations of revelations received by Muhammad
220 78. Scholasticism  dominant medieval philosophical approach… based on the use of logic to resolve theological problems
221 79. Serfs   peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle Ages
222 80. Shogun  military leaders of the bakufu
223 81. Shogunate (bakufu)   military government in 12th century Japan… established by the Minamoto after the Gempei Wars… retained emperor but real power resided in military government and samurai
224 82. Song  Chinese dynasty that united the entire country until 1127 and the southern portion until 1279, during which time northern China was controlled by the Juchen tribes
225 84. Spanish Inquisition   In the Middle Ages, a judicial procedure that was used to combat heresy… in Spain, authorized by Sixtus IV in 1478; the pope later tried to limit its powers but was opposed by the Spanish crown…the grand inquisitor Tomás de Torquemada was responsible for burning about 2,000 heretics at the stake
226 85. St. Cyril a missionary sent by the Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans… converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity…responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic
227 86. Sufis  mystics within Islam… responsible for expansion of Islam in southeastern Asia
228 87. Sunni/Shia  political and theological division within Islam… followers of the Umayyads
229 88. T’ang  Chinese emperor who overthrew the Hsia dynasty and founded the Shang dynasty
230 89. Taika Reforms attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese- style emperor…also tried to make a professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army
231 90. Tang  dynasty that succeeded the Sui in 618 C.E… more stable than the previous dynasty
232 91. Tatars   Mongols; captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kievan state
233 92. Temple of the Sun  Inca Religious center located at Cuzco
234 93. Tenochtitlan   center of Aztec power, founded on marshy island in Lake Texcoco
235 94. Thomas Aquinas  Creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God
236 95. Tikal  A ruined Mayan city of northern Guatemala. It was the largest of the Mayan cities and may also be the oldest
237 96. Timur Lang  leader of Turkic nomads - last Mongol nomad 
238 97. Timur the Lame   name given to Timur Lang
239 98. Treaty of Verdun  843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious divided his territories, the Carolingian Empire, into three kingdoms
240 99. Umayidd powerful Muslim family
241 100. Vassals   members of military elite who received land or benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty
242 101. Viking/Norse  Scandinavian raiders
243 102. Vladimir  Ruler of Russian kingdom of Kiev – converted kingdom to Christianity
244 103. William the Conqueror  Invaded England, was Duke of Normandie, and created a centralized feudal system
245 104. Wu Zhao   Empress in China; supported Buddhism
246 106. provincial leaders  Regional Rulers
247 107. Sharia   Islamic Law
248 108. ulama religious leaders - traditional leanings in Islamic Empire
249 109. jihad  is an Arabic word meaning “ striving in the way of God”, but it is often translated as “holy war”. Refer to an armed struggle fought in the defense of Islam to please Allah
250 110. Bedouins  Nomadic Arabs who originally inhabited desert areas of the Middle East and northern Africa and later began to move to other parts of the region
251 111. Moors The Medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb. They captured Spain in 700s, and were expelled from Spain in 1492
252 112. Sephardim  The Jews whose traditions and culture originate from the Mediteranean, including Spain and Portugal
253 113. Christian monks  clergy of Christianity, spread the religion
254 114. ideographic A type of character representation in which characters do not represent pronunciation alone, but are also related to the component meanings of words
255 115. Cyrillic alphabet  an alphabet derived from the Greek alphabet and used for writing Slavic languages
256 116. Hagia Sofia  It is a 6th century masterpiece of Byzantine architecture in Istanbul; built as a Christian church by Justinian, converted to a mosque in 1453, and made into a museum in the middle of the 20th century
257 117. woodblock printing   It is a technique for printing used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China sometime between the mid-6th and late 9th centuries
258 118. Arabesque  Ornament or surface decoration with intricate curves and flowing lines based on plant forms
259 119. astrolabe  an instrument that was used to determine the altitude of objects (like the sun) in the sky. It was first used around 200 BC by astronomers in Greece. The astrolabe was replaced by the sextant
260 120. Arabic numerals   A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Most familiar numeral style (1,2,3, etc.,) used on clock and watch dials
261 121. mosque  A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith
262 122. minaret  A tower attached to a mosque, used for call to prayer
263 123. dome a common structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere
264 124. pillars  In architecture and structural engineering, a column is that part of a structure whose purpose is to transmit through compression the weight of the structure
265 125. vernacular languages   the native language of a particular locality
266 126. polyphonic music   Music in which two or more melodies sound simultaneously
267 127. Romanesque   A style of European architecture prevalent from the ninth to the twelfth centuries, with round arches and barrel vaults influenced by Roman architecture and characterized by heavy stone construction
268 128. Avicenna  Persian physician, philosopher, and scientist. He was the author of 450 books on a wide range of subjects. Many of these concentrated on philosophy and medicine. He is considered by many to be "the father of modern medicine"
269 129. Al Razi  A Persian Philosopher who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. (865-925)
270 130. Al Khwarizmi  Persian scientist, mathematician, astronomer/astrologer, and author. He is often cited as "the father of algebra", which was named after a part of the title of his book, Hisab al-jabr w'al-muqabala, along with the algorism number system
271 131. Omar Khayyam  He was famous during his lifetime as a mathematician and astronomer who calculated how to correct the Persian calendar. he objected to the notion that every particular event and phenomenon was the result of divine intervention; nor did he believe in any Judgement Day or rewards and punishments after life. Instead he supported the view that laws of nature explained all phenomena of observed life
272 132. Rubaiyat in Persian  Rubaiyat is a common shorthand name for the collection of Persian verses known more formally as the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. In fact, rubaiyat (a plural word derived from the arabic root meaning 'four') means "quatrains" in the Persian language
273 133. Li Tai-Po   Chinese poet living in Tang Dynasty . He is best known for the extravagant imagination and striking Taoist imagery in his poetry, as well as for his great love for liquor. He is said to have drowned in the Yangtze River, having fallen from his boat while drunkenly trying to embrace (the reflection of) the moon
274 134. Orthodox  The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho ('right', 'correct') and doxa ('thought', 'teaching'), is typically used to refer to the correct theological or doctrinal observance of religion, as determined by some overseeing body. Each is headed by a bishop; most are related to a specific country, as in Serbian, Russian and Greek Orthodox
275 135. Conservative  Person who generally likes to uphold current conditions and oppose changes; religious movement whose position lies between the Orthodox and Reform
276 136. Hadith  Traditions of the prophet Mohammad that played a critical role in Islamic law and rituals; recorded by women
277 137. Legalism  In Christian theology, legalism is belief, stated or supposedly implied, that law, not faith, is the pre-eminent principle of redemption
278 138. Shinto Religion of early Japanese culture; devotes worshipped numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world; offers of food and prayer made to gods and nature spirits
279 139. Tao Te Ching   The Way of Changes, a Chinese classic written by Lao Tzu around the 3rd century BC It is the fundamental text of Taoism
280 140. Thousand and One Nights   Arabian Nights' Entertainment: a collection of folktales in Arabic dating from the 10th century
281 141. Great Schism  Divide of the Christian church whereby for a time there were two popes
282 142. Patriarch  a man who rules a family, clan or tribe
283 143. Greek Orthodox Church  The state church of Greece, an autonomous part of the Eastern Orthodox Church
284 144. Roman Catholic Church  The Christian church characterized by an episcopal hierarchy with the pope as its head and belief in seven sacraments and the authority of tradition
285 145. Swahili   A Bantu language of the coast and islands of eastern Africa from Somalia to Mozambique
286 146. Sofala  Southern port with gold produced in the interior, controlled by Kilwa
287 147. Kilwa  Town on W African coast, wealthy & beautiful town , access to gold (Sofala) and most southern ship stop
288 148. monsoons   winds from the southwest or south that brings heavy rainfall to southern Asia in the summer - method by which Arab merchants travelled
289 149. Silk Road  number of trade routes from East Asia to Eastern Europe, one of the trade commodities was silk
290 150. mawali non-arab converts to Islam
291 151. Mali Empire   model of Islamicized (reinforced kingship) Sudanic kingdoms, Malinke merchants traded throughout W Africa
292 152. Songhay Empire  successor to Mali empire, fusion of Islam, pagan, took over Niger valley, dominant in area until Muslims with muskets
293 153. hajj  Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca
294 154. scholar gentry  elite, educated bureaucrats who ran the centralized gov’t pf China
295 155. Ibn Battuta Arab traveler/trader who commented on African traveling security, cities
296 156. Mansa Musa  African prince from Mali who gave out so much gold during a pilgrimage it devalued
297 157. Ibn Battuta  Arab traveler/trader who commented on African traveling security, cities
298 158. calligraphy   writing art form
299 159. monochrome   Either black or white
300 160. footbinding as metaphor  The societal restrictions imposed upon women as families became wealthier, women status lowered
301 161. interregnum  The interval of time between the end of a sovereign's reign and the accession of a successor
302 162. shogun  Japanese lord who wielded most power while the emperor was controlled
303 163. puppet emperor  Emperor with no real power. In Japan, the shogun (who acted in the name of the emperor) had all the major power
304 164. Taika reforms  Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor
305 165. uji  An aristocratic lineage group of prehistoric origin (for example, the Fujiwara, the Taira)
306 166. warlordism  A military commander exercising civil power in a region, whether in nominal allegiance to the national government or in defiance of it
307 167. imperial bureaucracy  system to run centralized gov’t, comprised of educated scholar-gentry
308 168. Muhammad  Prophet who spread the Islamic religion. Born in 570, received revelations from Allah in 610, before passing away in 630
309 169. caliph  Political, religious and militaristic leader of Islam
310 170. Ali  The fourth caliph or successor of Muhammad. He was also the Prophet's cousin. He is revered by Shi'a Muslims as the rightful first caliph
311 171. Yuan dynasty  1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty. Period of Kublai Kahn and the Mongols dominance over China
312 172. junk  Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders. Played major roles in the Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
313 173. compass  Device used to determine geographic direction
314 174. abacus  A calculator that performs arithmetic functions by manually sliding counters on rods
315 175. movable type  invented in China in the mid-eleventh century. Individual characters made of fired clay were assembled and glued onto a plate to create a printing block. Introduced in Europe in the 15th century
316 176. landscape painting Popular artistic style in China during the Tang-Song era. Previously popular Buddhist themes are pushed away by the new scholar-gentry classes interest in nature’s beauty
317 177. currency-based economy Unified monetary and banking systems are present in the economy
318 178. new strains of rice new strains of rice - led to population growth in Asia
319 179. Prince Shotoku  Prince of Japan. When young, received Buddhist influences from relatives that were affected by Paekche and Kokuryo Buddhisms. Established an official rank system (based on Chinese and Korean official rank system) and a constitution (stressed the acceptable behaviors of the people) and spread Buddhism around Japan
320 180. Yamato clan  Gained control of the nation over other rival clans around 400 CE. Established an imperial court similar to that of China in 700 CE
321 181. compatibility of Chinese values   Both Confucianism and Daoism co-existed and were patronized side by side, C providing guidelines, and D satifying spiritual need
322 182. sedentary agriculture  Where farming occurs in one place, repeatedly, opposed to shifting cultivation
323 183. shifting cultivation  When farming occurs over several patches of land, rotatingly so that nutrients of the soil will not be depleted
324 184. pastoral nomadism  Herding animals while moving from place to place
325 185. foraging  Gathering food, usually nuts, berries, roots, etc
326 186. feudalism   Relationship between lord and serfs where protection is exchanged for crops/labor
327 187. manorialism  Organization of rural economy and society by three classes of manors: a lord’s own land, serf holdings, and free peasant land
328 188. fiefs  Plots of land owned by a lord, little kingdoms
329 189. vassals  Subordinate who, in exchange for land, gives loyalty
330 190. reciprocal relationship   System where both parties benefit - such as feudalism in Europe - protection for labor
331 191. samurai   Japanese feudal military leaders, rough equivalent of Western knights
332 192. nation-states  Autonomous state with people sharing a common culture/history/language
333 193. absolute despotism Where the ruler has complete authority/power
334 194. William the Conqueror  Duke of Normandy who invaded England in 1066 and conquered it
335 195. jury system  Judgment whereby there is a trial and people witnessing the trial deciding the guilt/innocence of a person
336 196. King John Younger brother of King Richard, & bad king of England basically
337 197. Magna Carta  Nobles fed up with King John made him sign Great Charter (Magna Carta) that made sure king got approval of aristocracy before imposing taxes, etc, limited king’s power
338 198. Parliament   Beginning in England with a House of lords (aristocracy) and House of Commons (rich merchants) governing legislative body
339 199. power of the purse   the power to raise and spend money
340 200. Hugh Capets  After the death of Louis, the son of Hugh the Great, Hugh Capet, requested the crown of France from the archbishop of Reims and the upper nobility
341 201. Sundiata   “Lion prince”; member of the Keita clan; created a unified state that became the Mali Empire; died in 1260
342 202. Timbuktu Port city of Mali; located just off the flood plain on the great bend in the Niger River
343 203. Louis IX Louis IX or Saint Louis,1214–70, king of France (1226–70), son and successor of Louis VIII
344 204. centralized monarchy   a monarchy whose rule included concentrated far-reaching power
345 205. Renaissance Cultural and political movement in Western Europe; began in Italy 1400 CE, rested on urban vitality and expanding commerce; combined art and literature with more secular views
346 206. Aristotle  Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world
347 207. Plato  Greek philosopher; knowledge based on consideration of ideal forms outside the material world; proposed ideal abstract form of government abstract principles
348 208. Cicero  Conservative Roman senator; stoic philosopher; one of the greatest orators of his day; killed in reaction to assassination of Julius Caesar
349 209. humanism  focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular to the study of ancient languages
350 210. scholasticism   dominant medieval philosophy approach; base in the schools and universities; use of logic to resolve theological problems
351 211. Byzantine Empire  Easter half of the Roman Empire following collapse of western half of the old empire; retained Mediterranean culture; capital at Constantinople
352 212. iconoclastic controversy   religious controversy with the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons
353 213. clergy  Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion
354 214. Avignon  In France, Avignon's architecture is marked by papal history. Where the Palace of the Popes was built in the 14th century
355 215. Reformation  religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the sixteenth century, and which, while ostensibly aiming at an internal renewal of the Church, really led to a great revolt against it, and an abandonment of the principal Christian beliefs
356 216. Counter-reformation  The Catholic Reformation or the Counter-Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism
357 217. Charlemagne  king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor; conqueror of the Lombards and Saxons (742-814)
358 218. Eleanor of Aquitaine   queen of France as the wife of Louis VII; that marriage was annulled in 1152 and she then married Henry II and became Queen of England (1122-1204)
359 219. Humanists  The focus on humankind as the center o intellectual and artistic endeavor
360 220. Vikings  A culture originating in Scandinavia (now Norway, Denmark and Sweden) around the mid-8th century AD The Vikings were fierce conquerors, brave explorers, and skilled craftspeople; they invaded and settled countries throughout Western Europe
361 221. Code of chivalry  The collective term for the social codes of knighthood that originated in France in the Middle Ages. It was based on brave, courteous and honourable behaviour – what came to be known as 'gentlemanly conduct.'
362 222. Code of the samurai  Also called bushi-do, which literally means "road of the warrior."; Based on principles of loyalty, courage and honor
363 223. Demesne land  The part of the lord's manorial lands reserved for his own use and not allocated to his serfs or freeholder tenants. Serfs worked the demesne for a specified numbers of days a week
364 224. Guilds  Western European trade associations, grew strongly in the 12th and 13th centuries to protect and promote trade groups
365 225. Gothic architecture  A style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries; characterized by slender vertical piers and counterbalancing buttresses and by vaulting and pointed arches
366 226. Hanseatic League  a commercial and defensive confederation of free cities in northern Germany and surrounding areas; formed in 1241 and most influential in the 14th century when it included over 100 towns and functioned as an independent political power; the last official assembly was held in 1669
367 227. Hundred Years War   
368 228. Interdict A prohibition by the pope that can deprive individual persons, groups, communities and even nations of all priestly ministry. Thus, they no longer had access to the sacraments of the church
369 229. Inquisition  An investigation or inquiry of an official or judicial nature; in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Catholic church conducted rigorous tribunals of Inquisition to identify and suppress heresy and punish heretics. These were especially severe in Spain with the inquisition of Jews in the late- 15th century
370 230. Monasticism, importance of  Monasticism is the ancient style of vowed religious life which typically includes community, prayer, common worship, silence, and labour. It is governed by a monastic rule, or way of life, which involves a choice to live apart from society and the world, and so to witness in a radical way to Jesus Christ
371 231. Northern Renaissance Flemish, dutch art focus
372 232. High Renaissance  later period of the Renaissance, Italy big, Hellenistic influence
373 233. Papal States  group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 - 1870
374 234. Russian Orthodox Church  conservative branch of Christianity that developed in Russia with Byyzantine cue
375 235. Perspective in art development in the Renaissance that included realistic three-dimensional perspective
376 236. Villein one of a class of feudal serfs, that held legal status of freedom in dealings with ppl except their lord
377 237. Seljuk Turks   major branch of the Oghuz turks, ruled parts of central asia and middle east (11-14 centuries)
378 238. Ottoman Turks  ethnic subdivision of Turkish ppl, who dominated ruling class of the ottoman empire
379 239. sultan Islamic title, used for rulers of the muslim country
380 240. Crusade series of military campaigns, where roman catholics tried to capture “holy land” from muslims, some were in Europe
381 241. Bantun  term used to describe 400 diff enthnic groups in Africa, Cameroon to south Africa, which were untied by a common language (Bantu languages)
382 242. Zimbabwe  country where Bantu ppl began migrating into, linked to the establishment of trade ties with muslim merchants on Indian ocean (bout 10th century) trading natural resources such as gold, ivory, copper for cloth and glass
383 243. Mamluks   Arabic word for “owned”, slave soldiers used by muslim caliphs and the ottoman empire
384 244. Tatars  name applied to the Turkic ppl of eastern Europe and central asia, derived from Ta-ta a Mongolian tribe that inhabited present northeast Mongolia in 5th centrury AD
385 245. Genghis Khan  successful military leader, united mongol tribes, was the founder of the mongol empire (1206-1368)
386 246. khanates  region ruled under a khan, divided kingdoms under the mongol empire
387 247. Golden Horde   a state established in Russia, one of the four kingdoms in the mongol empire
388 248. Khazars  nomadic Turkic people from central asia, many converted to Judaism, basically wandering people, allies of Byzantine empire and sassanid empire
389 249. Kievan Russia  early east Slavic state, dominated by city of kiev
390 250. city-states  a sovereign state consisting of an independent city and its surrounding territory
391 251. national identity   distinguishing features of a group, to individual’s sense to belong in it
392 252. Balkan Peninsula  geographic name used to describe southern Europe, as it was surrounded by the Adriatic, Ionian, Aegean…seas from southwest , south and southeast
393 253. steppes a vast semiarid grass-covered plain, found in southeast Europe and Mongolia
394 254. bubonic plague  A highly contagious disease, that was fatal and otherwise known as the disease spread in Asia and Europe in 1347-1351 by the Chinese and Mongols
395 255. Black Death  Also known as the Black Plague that wiped out approximately 25 million people in Europe, or 25% of it’s population
396 256. Bosporus  a narrow strait separating European and Asian Turkey and joining the Black Sea with the Marmara Sea; also an important trade route
397 257. Dardanelles  a straight connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara
398 258. Mesoamerica  known as the strip from Mexico to Midwestern United States and Canada, where the native Americans have inhabited over time
399 259. Maya  A native American group of people that lived in Central America
400 260. Toltecs  a member of a Nahuatl-speaking people of central and southern Mexico whose empire flourished from the 10th century under invasion by the Aztes in the 12th Century
401 261. Quetzalcoatl   A god of the Toltecs and Aztecs, one of the manifestation of the sun god Tezcatlipoca and represented as a plumed serpent
402 262. priest-scholars  the higher class people of the native American societies, that controlled the government along with the grand leader
403 263. differentiated labor  labor shared amongst the peasant class
404 264. ceremonial centers Temples, places of Sacrifice
405 265. moundsbuilders in Mississippi region of N. America, civilizations found that created moundlike temples of dirt
406 266. pyramids A solid figure with a polygonal base and triangular faces that meet a common point, a religious burial temple
407 267. Inca  A member of the group of Quechuan peoples of highland Peru who established an empire from northern Ecuador to central Chile before the Spanish conquest
408 268. Hillside terracing  method growing rice in bulk
409 269. Quipu  A record-keeping device of the Inca empire consisting of a series of variously colored strings attached to a base rope and knotted so as to encode information, used especially for accounting purposes
410 270. tribute  The sacrificing to the gods or the offering and payments to the leaders and/or owners of the land
411 271. Tula  capital of the Toltec people, established around 968 CE
412 272. Aztec Empire  powerful Indian empire founded on Lake Texcoco (Mexico)
413 273. Hernan Cortes Spanish explorer who defeated the Aztec Empire and brought most of Mexico under Spanish control
414 274. Montezuma emperor of the Aztecs who saw his empire defeated by the Spanish
415 275. Francisco Pizarro   Spanish conquerer who defeated the Incan Empire of Peru from 1535-1540
416 276. Atahualpa  the 13th and last emperor of the Incan Empire
417 277. Cuzco  capital city of the Incan Empire
418 278. Teotihuacan city founded by the Aztecs in 1325
419 279. Acculturation  the obtainment of culture by an individual or a group of people
420 280. Calpulli  Aztec clans that distributed land and provided labor and warriors
421 281. Despotism a system of government where a single authority rules with absolute power
422 282. bakufu  military government established by the Minamoto, a powerful Japanese clan in 1185
423 283. bushi  Japanese warrior leaders tasked with law and order, public infrastructure, tax collection, and organizing an army
424 284. bushido Japanese warrior code of conduct, similar to the chivalry system in Europe
425 285. celadon  Korean and Japanese pottery with a light green glaze
426 286. daimyo Warlord rulers who divided Japan into 300 little kingdoms
427 287. Gempei Wars five year war fought between two of Japan's powerful families, the Taira and the Minamoto
428 288. kowtow   formal recognition of the Chinese emperor's authority, where representatives from tribute states would present gifts and engage in a formal bowing ceremony
429 289. Neo-Confucianism  a response by the Confucians to the dominance of the Daoists and Buddhists, severe Confucianism
430 290. seppuku ritual suicide/disembowelment in Japan (hara-kiri); demonstrating courage and restoring family honor
431 291. tea ceremony  Japanese ceremony with Chinese influences symbolizing tranquility
432 292. Allah  Muslim God
433 293. Battle of Tours   (October 25, 732) Charles Martel, the Frankish Leader went against an Islamic army led by Emir Abd er Rahman; the Islamic army was defeated and Emir Abd er Rahman was killed. The battle stopped the northward advancement from Spain
434 294. Five Pillars  religious duties of Muslims (confession of faith, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, hajj)
435 295. harem living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household
436 296. hijrah  Mohammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina
437 297. Ka'aba   Islamic shrine in Mecca; focus of annual truce among Bedouin tribes
438 298. People of the Book   (dhimmi) Christians and Jews who shared the Bible with Muslims, could be taxed by Muslims
439 299. Ramadan Islamic month of fasting from dawn to sunset
440 300. shariah  Islamic law
441 301. umma  community of the faithful within Islam; creating political unity
442 302. zakat bligatory tax for Muslims used for charity
443 303. benefice   A landed estate granted in feudal tenure.
444 304. excommunication  banishment from certain religion & Church
445 305. investiture  The act or formal ceremony of conferring the authority and symbols of a high office (there was investiture controversy – who got to do it)
446 306. medieval relating to the Middle Ages
447 307. Middle Ages Time period between the postclassical era and the renaissance. Consists of Dark Ages and the High Middle Ages, in which the latter saw an improvement in trade, economy, and lives of peasants.
448 308. moldboard plow  plow invented during the Middle Ages to improve farming effeciency
449 309. age grade a social category based on age, within a series of such categories, through which individuals pass over the course of their lives. This is in contrast to an age set, to which individuals remain permanently attached as the set itself becomes progressively more senior.
450 310. Austronesian  a large language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia.
451 311. caravel  a small, highly maneuverable, three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish for long voyages of exploration beginning in the 15th century
452 312. griots West African poet, praise singer, and wandering musician, considered a repository of oral tradition
453 313. kamikaze  a legendary typhoon said to have saved Japan from a Mongol invasion fleet in 1281. In Japanese, the word "kamikaze" is used only for this typhoon
454 314. Khan  Mongol ruler
455 315. lateen sail  a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction. Adopted in the Late Middle Ages, and Europeans were able to sail out of the Mediterranean
456 316. Malay sailors  a lot traded and interacted with other Southeast Asian societies a lot
457 317. Maori  indigenous people of New Zealand
458 318. metropolitan  a big city with a large population
459 319. Middle Kingdom  What China called itself. Idea of ethnocentrism by the Chinese
460 320. Ming dynasty  Dynasy after Yuan founded by Zhu Yuanjhan
461 321. Mongol Peace   Pax Mongolica - Mongols brought peace to almost the entire Asian continent because they tolerated and encouraged diversity, especially religions
462 322. stateless society  an ethnic group not represented by its own unique, coterminous state
463 323. steppe diplomacy  institution that the Mongols employed to all empires under its control. Paying tribute was one aspect of it
464 324. syncretism  attempt to merge disparate traditions or practices and combine them with another tradition. (religion also)
465 325. Anasazi A native American culture flourishing in southern Colorado and Utah and northern New Mexico and Arizona
466 326. ayllus  the basic political unit of pre-Inca and Inca life; core of extended families but nno non-related members were included
467 327. Chimor political grouping of the chimu culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru, from 850-1470
468 328. chinampas known as floating gardens, small, rectangle-shapes area of fertile arable land used for agriculture in the Xochimilco region of the Basin of Mexico
469 329. Mexica what we know today as Mexicans
470 330. Mississippians  People of the Mississippi plains
471 331. mita  Mandatory public service by society in ancient South America. During the Inca empire, public service was required in public works projects such as the building of road and military services
472 332. parallel descent  The area southward of Mexico
473 333. Quechua = the language of the Inca empire, now spoken in the Andes highlands from southern Colombia to Chile
474 Babur founded Mughal Dynasty of India
475 Akbar greatest ruler of Mughal Dynasty - religious tolerance - created Din-i-Ilahi ("Faith of the Divine"), combo of Hindu, Islam, Christianity patron of the arts/literature
476 Sha Jahan Indian Mughal ruler - tried (not successfully) to expand frontier - built Taj Mahal
477 Charles V Holy Roman Emperor - heritage from German Hapsburgs, Burgundy, Spanish heritage - united empires
478 conquistador Spanish soldiers, explorers, adventurers who spread across Americas
479 Henry of Navarre First French monarch - Bourbon dynasty - religious tolerance for Protestant minority - Edict of Nantes - cared about welfare of people
480 Hideyoshi daimyo that unified Japan, only samurai class carry weapons - replaced by Tokugawa
481 Ivan the Great quadrulpled size of Russia, made Moscow impressive capital of Third Roman Empire, laid foundation for Russian aristocracy, longest rule
482 Louis XIV "Sun King" - did he say "I am the state" - longest rule in Europe - made France absolute monarchy, increased France's powers through foreign wars, built Versailles, symbol of European absolutism
483 Prince Henry the Navigator Pushed Portugues efforts to explore African sea route to Asia
484 Oliver Cromwell British military leader - based on meritocracy - though a military dictator, England became first Republic
485 ronin masterless samurai between 1180-1868
486 Sikhs Ten Sikh gurus - Northern India - started religion - Sikhism - unique view of world through one God
487 Suleiman I Ruler of Ottoman Empire - same time as Charles V - fair ruler/expanded holdings, reconstructed legal system
488 Sunni Ali 15th century - great king of Songhai Empire in sub-Saharan Africa - controlled Timbuktu - surpassed Mali Empire
489 Guinea states States in West Africa known for gold and African slave labor
490 Indo-Gangetic Plain a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh.
491 Lepanto 1571 - Coalition of Catholic states navy defeats Ottoman Empire's navy - signals beginning of W. European/Spain/Portuguese dominance of Mediterranean and beyond
492 Act of Toleration 1689 - British law granting tolerance to minority faiths - ends generations of bloodshed 
493 Capitalism economic system where government stays out of companies choices, market - supply/demand determine product, goal is to make profit to reinvest in company
494 Entrepreneur person who starts up company to compete in capitalist system, must secure capital from financing - bank/currency system useful
495 joint stock company W. European financial company with capital from investors, used to make a profit - precursor to corporation
496 Dutch East India Company Trading corporation for Netherlands - controlled markets and resources of colonies
497 British East India Company Controlled trade for Britain - became even stronger than some governments - controlled markets and resources
498 Treaty of Tordesillas Pope divides Latin America between Portugal and Spain - Brazil - Portuguese, Spain - everywhere else
499 Parlement In France, initially political bodies responsible for recording laws/edicts - eventually pushed power by not recording edicts they didn't agree with
500 Baroque exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, and music. The style started around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe
501 Elizabeth I England monarch 1558-1603, ruled under religious turmoil, Elizabethan Age - golden age of England - Shakespeare, encouraged colonization, didn't give out nobility
502 John Calvin Calvinism - belief in predestination - anti-witches, 
503 English Enlightenment 1649-1690 - England reduces power of monarchy through overthrow of Cromwell, Glorious Revolution, English Bill of Rights, and writing by John Locke and Thomas Hobbes
504 Footbinding began Tang Dynasy - 700, eventually spread to all classes, feet bound on girls at 6 years old, status symbol - only rich could afford to do it, symbol of femininity - women willing to go through pain for appearance - see high heel shoes
505 Huguenots Protestants living in Catholic France - minority - often persecuted
506 Italian Renaissance rebirth of Classical (Greece/Rome) art/architecture - humanistic focus - patrons - families like Medici and the Catholic Church - blended natural world w/ religion - transition away from religion
507 Jesuits footsoldiers of the Pope, Society of Jesus, branch of Catholicism after Reformation, focused on educational/universities, missionary work and social justice
508 Northern Renaissance spread to Nothern Europe - literature, art - blended human form w/ religion - literature/arts in vernacular for the masses
509 Philosophes French Enlightened thinkers who tried to explain society/human nature - led to Enlightenment
510 Puritans Sect of Protestants in England who dismiss Anglican church, want pure form of Christianity based on Bible, predestination, kicked out to New England - known in the US as Pilgrims
511 Rococo The Rococo style of art emerged in France in the early 18th century as a continuation of the Baroque style, but in contrast to the heavier themes and darker colors of the Baroque, the Rococo was characterized by an opulence, grace, playfulness, and lightness. Rococo motifs focused on the carefree aristocratic life and on lighthearted romance rather than heroic battles or religious figures; they
512 Architecture of the Renaissance architecture based on mathematical precision, columns, domes, geometrically perfect designs, revival of Roman architecture
513 Deism belief that God stays out of our daily lives - he's a big clockmaker who started the universe, gave us everything we need, and then just watches
514 Patronage of the arts Catholic Church and rich families paid artists to decorate walls/architecture/fountains/doors
515 Printing Press Gutenberg - led to increased literacy, writing in vernacular, takes power from the Church monopoly on literacy
516 absolute monarchy heriditary leadership that controls executive, legislative, judicial decisions
517 boyars member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian and Romanian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century
518 Cossacks several peoples living in the southern steppe regions of Eastern Europe and Asiatic Russia, famous for their self-reliance and military skill, particularly horsemanship
519 creoles Spanish/Portuguese born in Latin America - on class scale, step below those actually born in Spain/Portugal
520 devshirme system of collection of young boys from conquered Christian lands by the Ottoman sultans as a form or regular taxation in order to build a loyal slave army and class of administrators: the Janissaries, or other servants such as tellak
521 divine right belief that God stays out of our daily lives - he's a big clockmaker who started the universe, gave us everything we need, European belief by monarchs, aristocracy that their right to rule was legitimized/sanctioned by God,I was born into a monarchy, I must deserve it
522 Dutch learning Rangaku - method by which Japan kept abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641–1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunate's policy of national isolation 
523 encomienda system of Spanish rule in Americas where Spanish landowners have right to forced labor for all indigenous people living on land grant
524 Enlightenment attempt to apply logic from Scientific Revolution to human nature/government/economics
525 Estates-General meeting of French governing body called to find way of bringing in more income to the state, backfires and leads to French Revolution
526 Glorious Revolution 1688 overthrow of King James in England
527 Hagia Sophia former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque, now converted into a museum, in the Turkish city of Istanbul
528 Janissaries Christian slave army that fought for Ottoman Empire - later developed monopoly on military and resisted technogical innovation
529 Mancus gold coin in Medieval Europe
530 mercantilism economic system where colonies market and resources for the sole use of mother country
531 mestizos American that is half indigenous person, half European
532 Mughal dynasty Muslim dynasty that ruled India
533 mulatto offspring of a European and an African
534 nation-state nation-state": a sovereign state of which most of the citizens or subjects are united also by factors which define a nation, such as language or common descent. Typically it is a unitary state with a single system of law and government. It is almost by definition a sovereign state, meaning that there is no external authority above the state itself.
535 parliamentary monarchy attempt to control monarchy through parliament - first experiment in England - usually controlled budget which controlled/limited monarch
536 peninsulares highest of Spanish colonial caste system - peninsular was a citizen born in the metropolitan part of the Spanish Empire. Also, they held high official power or positions.
537 purdah practice of requiring women to cover their bodies so as to cover their skin and conceal their form, separates genders, some places more cultural than religious
538 Qing dynasty founded by Manch clan from Northeast, not Qin, claimed mandate of heaven, eventually couldn't keep out Europeans, died
539 Reconquista reestablishment of Christian rather than Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula, taking place between 718 and 1492
540 sovereignty right to exercise supreme political (e.g. legislative, judicial, and/or executive) authority over a geographic region, group of people, or oneself
541 Taj Mahal finest example of Mughal architecture - Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan commissioned its construction as a mausoleum for his favorite wife, Arjumand Bano Begum, who is better known as Mumtaz Mahal
542 Tokugawa Shogunate a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city of Edo, now Tokyo based on the strict class hierarchy originally established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The warrior-caste of samurai were at the top, followed by farmers, artisans, and traders
543 viceroyalty royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch - usually refers to method of colonial rule
544 caravel small, highly maneuverable, three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish for long voyages of exploration beginning in the 15th century, due to size could explore up river
545 Columbian Exchange Trade of Americas/Africa/Europeexchange of crops, disease, culture, peoples, pack animals  - led to improved diets, massive immigration (some forced)
546 Northwest Passage attempt to find water route through North America - none ever found - led to exploration of bays, rivers
547 Middle Passage term given for sea voyage of African slaves on way to Latin America/Caribbean/North America - 25-50% would perish on trip
548 triangular trade trade of African slaves to Caribbean, sugar to industrialized North U.S. and England, manufactured goods to Africa
549 Catholic Reformation – Counter Reformation instead of transforming Catholic Church after Protestant Reformation (did get rid of indulgences), stop the spread of Protestantism, both by reforming the Catholic Church, and also by persecuting as heretical those deemed to go too far 
550 commercial revolution of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately 1520 until 1650. Voyages of discovery in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries allowed European powers to build vast networks of international trade, which in turn generating a great deal of wealth for them
551 empirical research data needed to support logical views - theories made not what you believe, but what you can prove
552 excommunication kicked out of the Church, threat made for those who had heretical views
553 Enlightenment belief that logic, techniques used in Scientific Revolution could be applied to human behavior, government, economics - series of essays/novels - movement away from the Church
554 heliocentric theory belief that earth rotates around the sun, contradicts geocentric view held for centuries, and by church that universe revolved around earth
555 indulgence selling of passes out of pergatory into heaven to pay for Renaissance architecture/art in Rome, big complaint of Martin Luther
556 laissez-faire economics belief that government should not control business - hands off - let market decide success/failure of a product
557 natural laws belief that human interaction/rule of law is governed by a set of laws - similar to those found in nature like gravity
558 Nintey-Five Theses complaints made by Martin Luther against Catholic Church - nailed to the church university door, started Protestant Reformation
559 predestination belief that a long time ago, at the dawn of creation, all spirits/souls were predetermined on who was going to heaven, so…going to heaven not based on works/actions, but on God's choosing
560 Protestant Reformation attempt to reform Church, leads to divide, creation of Protestant faiths that gain legitimacy from the Bible and not from the Church, not as ritualistic as the Church, Bibles written in vernacular, movement divided nations in Europe led to wars
561 Society of Jesus Otherwise known as the Jesuits, Catholic response to Protestant Reformation - encouraged education, human rights
562 Martin Luther priest that initiated Protestant Reformation, refused to renounce views, protected by German princes, also wanted clergy to be able to marry
563 Henry VIII created Anglican Church, split from Catholic Church because Pope would annull marriage to women who couldn't produce male heir
564 Protestant doctrines don't believe in holy trinity, only through Bible/faith in Christ can you go to heaven, priests can be married, don't take communion, don't answer to Pope
565 Saint Ignatius Loyola Leader of Jesuits - pushed for universities, education, human rights
566 European religious wars Following Reformation - European regions fought each other on whether to be Protestant or Catholic, stay Catholic, still pay taxes to Church, Church owns property, but traditional, princes/leaders would change minds & people would have to follow
567 Thirty Years War years 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of today's Germany, but also involving most of the major continental powers. It occurred for a number of reasons. Although it was from its outset a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, the self-preservation of the Habsburg dynasty was also a central motive
568 Enlightened monarchs/despots monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to their kingdoms. They tended to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property. Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education
569 Maria Theresa and Joseph II first and only female head of the Habsburg dynasty. She was Archduchess of Austria, and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia and ruler of other territories from 1740 until her death. She also became the Holy Roman Empress when her husband was elected Holy Roman Emperor. She was one of the so-called "enlightened despots" . She was one of the most powerful rulers of her time, ruling over much of central Europe.
570 Frederick the Great a king of Prussia from the Hohenzollern dynasty, reigning from 1740 to 1786. - enlightened monarch
571 Copernicus provided the first modern formulation of a heliocentric (sun-centered) theory of the solar system
572 Galileo improvements to the telescope, a variety of astronomical observations, the first and second laws of motion, and effective support for Copernicanism. He has been referred to as the "father of modern astronomy", as the "father of modern physics", and as "father of science".
573 Sir Isaac Newton By deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion from this system, he was the first to show that the motion of bodies on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. The unifying and deterministic power of his laws was integral to the scientific revolution and the advancement of heliocentrism.
574 Voltaire Enlightened thinker spoke out against the Church, corresponded with Enlightened Monarchs
575 Jean-Jacques Rousseau political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. His legacy as a radical and revolutionary is perhaps best demonstrated by his most famous line in The Social Contract: "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains."
576 class diversification in Europe growth of middle class between aristocracy and peasantry
577 population growth and the Agricultural Revolution need for more food for Industrialization/growing population (little disease, improving health/diet), improved technology, crop rotation, enclosure movement
578 Adam Smith Wealth of Nations author, put forth foundation of capitalism - laissez faire, move away from mercantilism
579 proto-industrialization 16th century. The word was initially applied to cottage industries in the countryside. In spite of the opposition of urban guilds, rural residents were performing many industrial tasks. 
580 lodestone  
581 Iberian wave of exploration Portuguese and Spanish move across coast of Africa,exploring quickest route to India, starts wave of exploration, set up forts on islands on coast
582 Prince Henry the Navigator sparks European interest in exploration, gave Portuguese a head start, known in English as Prince Henry the Navigator or the Seafarer (Portuguese: o Navegador). He promoted early Portuguese efforts to explore an African route to Asia
583 Christopher Columbus "discoverer" of Americas, looking for shortcut/western route to East Indies - controversial character - treatment of indigenous people/African slave introduction vs. Columbian Exchange and starting new wave of exploration, starts era of European dominance
584 Ferdinand Magellan 1521 - led first attempt to circumnavigate the globe
585 colonization need for markets, resources for industrializing nations - also needed precious metals to fuel Iberian Peninsula wealth, also Europeans emigrated due to lack of land, overpopulation, chance for new beginning
586 northern wave of exploration France, England, Dutch explore North America set up independent colonies with direct ties to Western Europe, less role of the Catholic Church, greater political independence than Latin America, developed more diverse societies than monoculture of Latin America
587 Jacques Cartier explorer popularly thought of as one of the major discoverers of Canada.
588 North American fur trade Indians and French worked together, massive exporters of fur, beaverskin caps became rage in Europe, French colonized differently, mostly male-dominated initially along Mississippi
589 Henry Hudson British explorer, Scandinvavia, Canada, and North Eastern Europe, looked for Northwest passage
590 New Amsterdam 17th century fortified settlement in the New Netherland territory (1614-1674), fortified trading center that later becomes New York City
591 Osman I 1299 - Osman is regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Empire, and it is from him that its inhabitants, the Turks, called themselves Osmanli until the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
592 sultan certain Muslim rulers who claimed full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e. the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), without claiming the overall caliphate. It then developed some further meanings in certain contexts. The dynasty and lands ruled by the Sultan is called Sultanate
593 viziers -ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or Minister, often to a Muslim monarch such as a Caliph, Amir, Malik (king) or Sultan
594 Istanbul officially known as Constantinople until 1930 when its name was changed to Istanbul. Due to its three-thousand-year old history it is considered as one of the oldest still existing cities of the world
595 Mehmet II 1480 first Ottoman ruler to claim the title of Caesar of the Roman Empire (supreme ruler of all Christians), besides such usual titles as King, Sultan (ruler of a Muslim state), Khan (ruler of Turks), etc. He made this claim after his conquest of Constantinople (1453), and assumption of that imperial regalia along with his own
596 millet system method of working with religious minorities in Ottoman Empire - millets had a great deal of power - they set their own laws and collected and distributed their own taxes. All that was insisted was loyalty to the Empire. When a member of one millet committed a crime against a member of another, the law of the injured party applied, but the - ruling - Islamic majority being paramount, any dispute involving a Muslim fell under their sharia-based law
597 harem part of the household forbidden to male strangers. In Western languages such as English, this term refers collectively to the wives in a polygynous household as well as the "no-males allowed" area, or in more modern usage to a number of women followers or admirers of a man
598 Siege of Vienna failed attempt by Ottoman Empire to invade Europe, ever since Europe had to fear/keep peace with Ottoman Empire - farthest Westward advance into Central Europe of the Ottoman Empire, and of all the clashes between the armies of Christianity and Islam might be signaled as the battle that finally stemmed the previously-unstoppable Turkish forces 
599 Safavid Empire native Iranian dynasty from Azarbaijan that ruled from 1501 to 1736, and which established Shi'a Islam as Iran's official religion and united its provinces under a single Iranian sovereignty, thereby reigniting the Persian identity and acting as a bridge to modern Iran
600 Abbas the Great strongers leader of Safavid Empire, expanded trade w/ West - Abbas' reign, with its military successes and efficient administrative system, raised Iran to the status of a great power. Abbas was a skilled diplomat, tolerant of his Christian subjects in Armenia
601 Isfahan cultural/political center of Safavid Empire - 3rd largest city in Iran today
602 Ming dynasty ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. It was the last ethnic Han-led dynasty in China - vast navy and army were built, including four-masted ships of 1,500 tons displacement in the former, and a standing army of one million troops. Over 100,000 tons of iron per year were produced in North China (roughly 1 kg per inhabitant), and many books were printed using movable type
603 Francis Xavier pioneering Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). The Roman Catholic Church considers him to have converted more people to Christianity than anyone else since St. Paul
604 Qing Empire  
605 tea and Chinese trade with Europe Portuguese discover Chinese tea in 1560s, starts as drink of the wealthy, eventually supply increases, becomes part of daily life of Europe, dominates life
606 Kangxi one of the greatest Chinese emperors in history. His reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning Emperor of China in history, though it should be noted that having ascended the throne aged 8, he did not exercise much, if any control, over the empire, that role being fulfilled by his 4 guardians and his grandmother the Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang
607 Ashikaga Shogunate , 1336–1573) was a feudal military dictatorship ruled by the shoguns of the Ashikaga family. most of the regional power still remained with the provincial daimyo, and the military power of the shogunate depended largely on their loyalty to the Ashikaga. As the daimyo increasingly feuded among themselves in the pursuit of power, that loyalty grew increasingly strained, until it erupted into open warfare
608 Onin War 1467-1477 Civil War that entered into Warring States period - mass struggle of Daimyos
609 reunification of Japan The reunification of Japan is accomplished by three strong daimyo who succeed each other: Oda Nobunaga (1543-1582), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598), and finally Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616) who establishes the Tokugawa Shogunate, that governs for more than 250 years, following the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600
610 Oda Nobunaga Nobunaga lived a life of continuous military conquest, to eventually conquer most of Japan before his untimely death in 1582
611 Toyotomi Hideyoshi and brought an end to the Sengoku period. He was also known for his invasion of Korea. He is noted for a number of cultural legacies, including the restriction that only members of the samurai class could bear arms
612 Delhi Shogunate various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526
613 Babur the Tiger founded the Mughal dynasty of India. He was a direct descendant of Timur, and believed himself to be a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother
614 Aurangzeb ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. He was and is a very controversial figure in South Asian history, and is considered a tyrant by most Indians, Hindus, Sikhs, and other non-Muslims During his reign many Hindu temples were defaced and destroyed, and many non-Muslims (mostly Hindus) converted (widely believed forcibly) to Islam.
 
615 Askia Mohammed king of the Songhai Empire in the late 15th century. He strengthened his country and made it the largest in West Africa's history. At its peak under Muhammad, the Songhai Empire encompassed the Hausa states as far as Kano (in present-day Nigeria) and much of the territory that had belonged to the Mali Empire in the west. His policies resulted in a rapid expansion of trade with Europe and Asia, the creation of many schools, and made Islam an integral part of the empire
616 gold trade in West and Central Africa made inland nations rich, relied on slave trade and gold to increase wealth, stunted/slowed industrialization, made African nations dependent, needed to purchase European weapons to expand control of region
617 Osei Tutu Leader of loosely run Ashanti confederacy in Africa - of firearms bought from European traders in exchange for gold and slaves he greatly expanded the power of the city-state
618 Boers Name given to Dutch immigrants to South Africa, that eventually move inland, come into conflict with Zulus and British who later colonize
619 apartheid legalized separating of races in South Africa based on color - you're either white, colored or black
620 Zulu South African tribe led by Shaka Zulu that united tribes through warfare and then posed threat to Boers and British, one of few instances where non-Europeans able to defeat Europeans in battle
621 European and Arab domination of the East African-Indian Ocean trade network Portugal and Islam dominated trade of trees, exotic animals, slaves to Arab world, back to Europe
622 Atlantic slave trade purchase and transport of black Africans into bondage and servitude in the New World. It is sometimes called the Maafa by African Americans, meaning holocaust or great disaster in kiSwahili. The slaves were one element of a three-part economic cycle—the Triangular Trade and its infamous Middle Passage—which ultimately involved four continents, four centuries and the lives and fortunes of millions of people
623 sugar production and the slave trade labor intensive, dangerous, spurred growth of Atlantic Slave trade to Caribbean/Latin America - numbers kept up through extensive trade, not through reproduction - males primarily brought over - overseers keep order violently, absentee landowners
624 Hernan Cortes defeated Aztecs due to guns, germs, and steel
625 Francisco Pizarro defeated Incas due to guns, germs, and steel and a gullible Montezuma
626 New Spain the name given to one of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire from 1525 to 1821 - today it is Central America, plus Mexico, plus Southwest United States
627 Spanish importation of smallpox and measles Columbian exchange negative - immunity lacking in indigenous people - led to millions of deaths - huge demographic switch
628 Bartolome de Las Casas demonized role of Spanish and Columbus in treatment of Native Americans
629 silver mining forever altered world trade - became source of wealth for Portugal/Spain, currency for China, dominated resource of Mexico, extracted minerals from America and sent to Europe
630 Portuguese sugar production Portuguese cultivated in Brazil 1532 - surpassed honey as primary sweetener
631 Peter Stuyvesant last Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664. He was a major figure in the early history of New York City
632 Jamestown first British colony in future United States
633 Plymouth Rock first British colony in New England - famous Pilgrims - became religious focused w/ semi-theocracy
634 Massachusetts Bay Colony first British colony in New England - went on to be Massachusetts - started as joint-stock company
635 French and Indian Wars wars between England and France over land, secession, and power - end up being played out in North America - colonists and British vs. French and Indians - debt from these wars eventually leads to high British taxes which lead to American revolution
636 Russian-American Company Russian trading company that had monopoly over trade with Alaska
637 1. absolutism 1. A political theory that states all power should be held by one ruler
638 2. revolution 2. The overthrowing of 1 government and the replacement of it, by another
639 3. democracy 3. Government by people, represented by them or by elected representatives
640 4. mercantilism 4. The practice of merchants; commercialism
641 5. feudalism 5. A political and economical system; relation of a vassal and its lord is characterized by homage and protection
642 6. aristocracy 6. The upper, noble and rich class
643 7. middle class 7. Between the upper and lower, they often face a stagnant economy, some education
644 8. secular 8. Not bound by any religious faction
645 9. diplomatic 9. An arbitrator between 2 or more groups
646 10. conservative backlash 10.  A retaliation from often strict religious groups
647 11. liberalizing elements 11.  Elements needed to free a nation, people
648 12. democratizing elements 12.  Elements needed for political freedom
649 13. exploration 13.  The search of new borders and areas
650 14. colonization 14.  The act of acquiring nations for the benefit of the mother nation’s economy
651 15. unprecedented 15.  Lacking previous experience of the sort
652 16. imperialism 16.  A policy of extending a nation’s powers through diplomacy or military practice
653 17. economic exploitation 17.  The misuse, taking advantage of another, often more beneficial economy
654 18. Enlightenment 18.  The use of reason to scrutinize humanitarian reforms
655 19. unification 19.  The joining of two or more groups
656 20. industrialization 20.  The growing or birth of production
657 21. imperialism 21.  A policy of extending a nation’s powers through diplomacy or military practice
658 22. Western Hemisphere 22.  Often known as Western Europe or USA
659 23. nationalism 23.  Devotion to the culture of a nation
660 24. eugenics 24.  The study of heredity improvement of the human race controlled by selective breeding
661 25. ethnocentrism 25.  Belief in one’s ethnic superiority
662 26. Social Darwinism 26.  The belief that one achieves more than others by genetic or biological superiority
663 27. White Man’s Burden/Rudyard Kipling 27.  The belief that god asked Caucasians to enslave or take responsibility of the colored
664 28. Middle Kingdom 28.  China
665 29. communication revolution 29.  A change in the people communicate
666 30. urbanization 30.  The change from rural to urban lifestyle
667 31. technology 31.  Application of science, for commercial or industrial objectives
668 32. manufactured/finished goods 32.  The completion of raw material
669 33. raw materials 33.  Unfinished products, at its first stage
670 34. Atlantic World 34.  The water ways, between continents
671 35. plantation system 35.  The use of cotton gins and slaves for production
672 36. Monroe Doctrine 36.  The proclamation that prevented European nations from colonizing in the Americas
673 37. foreign investment 37.  Investing in other countries’ economies
674 38. capital 38.  The initial amount of money to start a business
675 39. Ottoman Empire 39.  Modern Day Turkey
676 40. domestic/putting out system 40.  Working on pieces of a product at home and the finalizing and selling them in the marketplace
677 41. Tanzimat Reforms 41.  Reorganization in the Ottoman Empire
678 42. extraterritoriality 42.  Diplomatic jurisdiction, exempted from local jurisdiction
679 43. Suez Canal 43.  Canal invested in by the US, located in Panama
680 44. Qing China 44.  The last Chinese dynasty
681 45. Opium War 45.  The war that led Western imperialism in China
682 46. Opium Trade 46.  The trade of illegal narcotics in China
683 47. serfdom 47.  A person in bondage or servitude
684 48. Commodore Perry 48.  US Commodore who defeated British on Lake Erie
685 49. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade 49.  The triangular slave trade- from Africa to Caribbean and then the Americas
686 50. mass production 50.  The generating of produce in vast quantities
687 51. Capitalism:  Capitalism is an evolving concept, which is derived from earlier European economic practices (Feudalism, Imperialism, Mercantilism). Capitalism is widely considered to be the dominant economic system in the world. There is continuing debate over the definition, nature, and scope of this system.
688 52. Enclosure movement:  During the Industrial Revolution, it was the consolidation of many small farms into one large farm, which created a labor force as many people lost their homes
689 53. Second Agricultural Revolution:  A period of technological change from the 1600s to mid-1900s beginning in Western Europe, beginning with preindustrial improvements like crop rotation and better horse collars, and concluding with industrial innovations to replace human labor with machines and to supplement natural fertilizers and pesticides with chemical ones.
690 54. Steam power:  steam engine is a heat engine that makes use of the thermal energy that exists in steam, converting it to mechanical work. Steam engines were used in pumps, locomotive trains and steam ships, and was essential to the Industrial Revolution. They are still used for electrical power generation using a steam turbine
691 55. Spinning Jenny:  The spinning jenny is a multi-spool spinning wheel. It was invented circa 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, near Blackburn, in Lancashire in the north west of England. The device dramatically reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a single worker able to work eight or more spools at once.
692 56. Protestant work ethic:  a value system that stresses the moral value of work, self-discipline, and individual responsibility as the means to improving one's economic well being; important in the industrial revolution because of its stress in hard work, etc.
693 57. Wealth of Nations/Adam Smith:  Considered the founding father of economics, Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776. His most famous concept was that markets guide economic activity and act like an "invisible hand" - allocating resources through prices, which rise when there is a shortage of a commodity and fall when it is plentiful.
694 58. Laissez faire capitalism:  Laissez-faire is short for "laissez-faire, laissez-passer," a French phrase meaning idiomatically "leave to do, leave to pass" or more accurately "let things alone, let them pass". First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. Laissez-faire economic policy is in direct contrast to statistic economic policy.
695 59. Bessemer Process:  Process of rendering cast iron malleable by the introduction of air into the fluid metal to remove carbon. This was the first process for mass-producing steel inexpensively.
696 60. Factory system:  The factory system was a method of manufacturing adopted in England during the Industrial Revolution. Workers would come to work in a city factory, often making low-quality goods in mass amounts. The method prior to the introduction of factories was the domestic system. The result of the factory system was that the quality of goods declined. Since factories were based in large cities, people from rural areas moved into the city to get work.
697 61. Interchangeable parts:  important for the industrial revolution because it signified the ability to change parts of products comparatively easier than before
698 62. Assembly Line  An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are added to a product in a sequential manner to create an end product.
699 63. Transportation revolution:  a term often used by historians to describe the dramatic improvement in transportation in the West that took place in the early 1800s. The Transportation Revolution included greatly improved roads, the development of canals, and the invention of the steamboat and railroad. Shipping costs were lowered as much as 90 percent in this era, which gave a big boost to trade and the settlement of new areas of land.
700 64. Proletariat:  new class of factory workers that emerged as a result of the industrial revolution
701 65. Reform movements:  movements that occurred, often, at the end of the industrial revolution, such as the feminist and labor union movements
702 66. Labor unions:  A union is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues; emerged at the end of the IR
703 67. Communist Manifesto/Karl Marx:  document relating proletariat with the IR, proletariat should overthrow bourgeoisie - roots of communism
704 68. Ladies:  Workers in Britain (1810–1820) who responded to replacement of human labor by machines during the Industrial Revolution by attempting to destroy the machines; named after a mythical leader, Ned Ludd.
705 69. United States Civil War:  1861-1865 - First modern war using industrial revolution, ironclad ships, new technology, massive deaths
706 70. monoculture:  agriculture based on only one crop; resulted in many European colonies in the 1800-1900 because of mercantilism
707 71. “Banana Republic”:  a small country (especially in Central America) that is politically unstable and whose economy is dominated monoculture because of European mercantilism
708 72. popular consumption:  goods that are consumed by a large percentage of the population around the IR, such as textiles
709 73. entrepreneurship:  significant to the IR because entrepreneurs are who help begin the IR
710 74. partial modernization:  industrialization but only to a certain extent; see Samuel Hungtinton’s Clash of Civilizations (good book…)
711 75. Meiji Restoration:  The Meiji Restoration also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to a change in Japan's political and social structure. It occurred from 1866 to 1869, a period of 4 years that transverses both the late Edo (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and beginning of the Meiji Era. Probably the most important foreign account of the events of 1862-69 is contained in A Diplomat in Japan by Sir Ernest Satow.
712 76. zaibatsu:  Huge industrial combines created in Japan in the 1890s as part of the process of industrialization
713 77. textile mills:  a factory for making textiles, one of the 1st major industries during the IR
714 78. class tension:  tension between classes during the IR due to income gap, social treatment, etc.
715 79. suffrage: